History of Diphtheria

白喉病史

In the 1920s there were about 100,000 to 200,000 cases of diphtheria each year in the United States, causing 13,000 to 15,000 deaths each year. Children are the largest number of patients deaths. One of the famous diphtheria outbreaks is in Nome, Alaska; Delivery of antoxins to Nome in 1925 is now celebrated as "Great Race of Mercy"). One of the first effective treatments for diphtheria was found in the 1880s by U.S. doctor Joseph O'Dwyer (1841-1898). O'Dwyer created the tube that was inserted into the neck, and prevented the victim from choking by the throat membranes that grew on and covered the airways in diphtheria infections. In 1884 Friedrich Loeffler found the causative organism (Corynebacterium diphtheriae.) In the 1890s, German physician Emil von Behring developed the antitoxins that did not kill bacteria, but neutralized the toxins that were released by the bacteria in the body. Von Behring found that animal blood that contained antitoxin and he took blood, removed the clotting agent and injected it into the patient's blood. Von Behring was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Medicine for his role in the search, and the development of serum treatment for diphtheria. The first successful vaccine for diphtheria was developed in 1913 by Behring. However, antibiotics for diphtheria are absent until the development of sulfa drugs.

在20世纪20年代,美国每年约有100,000到200,000例白喉病例,每年导致13,000至15,000死亡。死亡人数最多的是儿童。其中一个着名的白喉暴发, 发生在阿拉斯加的诺姆; 1925年"Serum Run to Nome",也被称为Great Race of Mercy,是由20只麝香犬和大约150只雪橇犬在5英尺和6英尺的674英里(1,085公里)内通过狗拉雪橇接力运输白喉抗毒素。半天,拯救诺姆小镇和周围社区免于流行病。。美国医生Joseph O'Dwyer(1841-1898)在19世纪80年代发现了白喉最先有效的治疗方法之一。 O'Dwyer创造了插入颈部的喉管,以防止受害者被白喉感染的喉咙膜阻塞,这些喉膜在气道上生长并覆盖呼吸管道。 1884年,弗里德里希·洛弗勒(Friedrich Loeffler)发现了导致白喉病的微生物- 白喉棒状杆菌。19世纪90年代,德国医生埃米尔·冯·贝林(Emil von Behring)研制出抗毒素,这种抗毒素是不会杀死细菌,而是中和体内细菌释放的毒素。 Von Behring发现含有抗毒素的动物血液,可去除凝血剂并将其注入患者的血液中。 Von Behring因在白喉病治疗方面的贡献和发展而获得了第一个诺贝尔医学奖。第一个成功的白喉疫苗是由Behring于1913年开发的。

Statue of Balto, the lead dog on the last relay team. The statue is located in Central Park (NYC) and is dedicated to all the dogs involved in the serum run. 

巴尔托雕像,最后接力队的主角。该雕像位于中央公园(纽约市),以纪念参与 ‘’1925 Serum Run to Nome’‘ 的所有狗。

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