• Dr Cheong Jack Pein

One in five children who gets diphtheria may die from it. 每五个患白喉症的孩子中就有一个会因此而丧命。

Updated: Nov 1, 2018


What is diphtheria?

Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria named Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Infection may lead to shortness of breath, skin disease, or carrier state without any clinical symptom. The word diphtheria was derived from the Greek word for "leather", which attributes to the tough and solid pharyngeal membrane that is the clinical hallmark of illness. Diphtheria outbreaks occured in Russia, Ukraine, Mongolia and Ecuador in the late 90s. It is now rare in industrialized countries because the DPT vaccines has been implemented. Few outbreaks with mortality have been reported recently in Malaysia due to the family's refusal to receive vaccines injection.

什么是白喉症?

白喉是一种由名为白喉棒状杆菌的细菌引起的急性传染病。感染可能导致呼吸短促,或皮肤病,也有可能没有任何临床症状。白喉这个词来源于希腊语中的“皮革”,它归因于坚韧而坚固的咽膜,这是疾病的临床主要症状。白喉病在90年代后期在俄罗斯,乌克兰,蒙古和厄瓜多尔大量爆发。由于DPT疫苗已经实施,现在在工业化国家很少见。由于家庭拒绝接种疫苗,最近在马来西亚白喉病导致的死亡已有有报道。


How does the infection spread?

Diphtheria infections are spread from humans to humans through the body fluid, droplets and physical touches.

感染如何传播?

白喉感染是通过体液,液滴和直接接触而传播。


What is the incubation period of diphtheria?

Incubation period: 2 to 5 days or longer. Infection crops up throughout the year with a peak incidence in the colder months.

白喉症的潜伏期是多久呢?

潜伏期:2至5天或更长。在较冷的月份发病率是最高。


What are the clinical manifestations?

The release of toxin causes inflammation and formation of grayish membrane around the throat. Patient has difficult to swallow because the throat feels pain in the area of throat and the swelling of the neck nodes. In severe cases, the neck may become swollen with difficulty of breathing.

白喉症有哪些临床症状?

毒素释放可能导致严重发炎。灰色膜会布满整个喉咙。患者可能会难以吞咽,喉咙疼痛和颈部肿胀。在严重的情况下,颈部可能会因肿胀而呼吸困难。


Why is diphtheria so dangerous?

Diphtheria can lead to severe complications such as paralysis of the cranial nerves, peripheral and sensory motor nerves, and myocarditis.

为什么白喉这么危险?

白喉可导致严重的并发症,如颅神经麻痹,呼吸困难而缺氧,以及心肌炎。


What are the treatments available?

Anti-toxin is given immediately after specimens for bacteria cultures are taken without waiting for the result. Antibiotics shall not replace the antitoxins. Erythromycin and penicillin can be given after the cultures are obtained.

有哪些治疗方法?

抗毒素注射液是第一线治疗。在不需等待细菌报告的情况下给予抗毒素注射。


Can the disease be prevented?

Yes. All individuals traveling abroad need a vaccine.

Type of vaccine: Diphtheria toxoid.

Dosage: At least 3, injected into the muscles.

Vaccine Schedule: When 2, 3 and 5 months old based on the National Immunization Program of Malaysia.

Extra Dose: When you are 18 months old and 7 years old.

Contraindications: Severe side effects or reactions developed during the previous doses.

Adverse effects: A mild local effect on the injection site or the entire body.

Before departure: Get the vaccine as early as possible. There is little protection after the second dose of vaccine. Erythromycin and Penicillin are given after the cultures are obtained.

这种疾病可以预防吗?

可以。所有出国到高风险区旅行的人都需要注射疫苗。

疫苗类型:白喉类毒素。

用量:至少3次。

疫苗时间表:根据马来西亚国家免疫计划,2,3和5个月时注射。

额外剂量:18个月大,和7岁。

不良反应:对注射部位或整个身体产生轻微的局部影响。


Read more: History of Diphtheria: The 1925 Serum Run to Nome, Alaska.


Diphtheria induces swelling of the neck, sometimes called the "Bull's neck" 白喉导致特有的颈部肿胀,有时成为“公牛脖”.

腿部白喉皮肤损伤.; A diphtheria skin lesion on the leg.


KPJ Pasir Gudang Specialist Hospital, Persiaran Dahlia 2, Taman Bukit Dahlia, 81700 Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia.

+607-2573999 Ext: 3906

©2020 by Dr Cheong Jack Pein Ear Nose and Throat (ENT), Head and Neck Surgery.